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U.S. History

  • Description: 

    This course is designed for small group instruction of struggling readers that require explicit instruction and specialized learning strategies.  Students are encouraged to develop a ‘growth mindset’ and take ever-increasing responsibility for their own learning. Classes will address state objectives in U.S. History (1800-1900) taken from the Essential Elements (modified Common Core Objectives) monthly.  We will cover units including The Revolution, the New Nation and the Constitution, the Civil War and Reconstruction, Reform Movements and Immigration, Economics, and Westward Expansion. Additional units include Our Community and Survival Words for students taking the Supported Independence or Participation level MI Access tests. A Study Guide and Quizlet wil be sent home on the firsty day of each unit with a tentative unit test date.  Interactve notebooks and formative assessments will also be sent home for study prior to the final test.

     

    Study Guide                    Tentative Test Date:  April 22, 2020

    The Civil War and Reconstruction

     

    Causes:  The country became divided because of:  1 pt.

     

    1. The Economy: The South depended on cotton and used slaves on their plantations
    2. States’ Rights vs. Federal Rights: The South wanted to be able to ignore federal laws
    3. Slavery: The North wanted to prevent slavery from spreading into new western states; the South was afraid the federal government would declare slavery illegal; Abolitionists in the north worked to make slavery illegal
    4. Abraham Lincoln: He was elected president in 1860 and was against slavery

     

    States in the South Secede (leave) 1 pt.

    Most Northerners wanted to keep the Union together. Most Southerners argued that secession was part of a state's rights. Each state had voluntarily chosen to enter the Union- the Constitution was a contract- but the federal government had violated the contract by not enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act and denying the spread of slavery to new territories.  The South wanted to keep their slaves.

    After Lincoln was elected in 1860, South Carolina seceded (left) the United States (the Union).  Other states followed them to create their own country: The Confederacy.  They elected Jefferson Davis as their president. 

     

    The War  15 pts.

    After S. Carolina seceded from the Union, the Confederate troops attacked Fort Sumter, a Northern fort.  The Union army was surrounded, cut off from supplies,  and surrendered after they ran out of ammunition.

     

    At first, the Confederates won most of the battles.  After a Union victory at Antietam,  Lincoln issued a preliminary warning that he would order the freedom of all slaves in any state that did not end its rebellion against the Union by January 1, 1863. President Abraham Lincoln issued a document called the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." The Emancipation Proclamation made freeing the slaves a primary goal of the Union war effort.  He also wanted to keep the Union together. These are  2 examples of how a president can influence the fate of the country.  

     

    The Union had a great victory at Vicksburg, cutting the Confederacy in two.  General Ulysses S. Grant was the Union leader of the army.

     

    General Robert E. Lee was in charge of the Confederate army .  He is thought to have been the most talented general in the war. Lee decided to invade Pennsylvania at a place called Gettysburg.  General Lee and the southern troops fought Union troops but were defeated.  This was the bloodiest battle of the war and thousands of soldiers were killed on both sides.  President Lincoln held a ceremony on the site and delivered the Gettysburg Address, asking people to fight harder to end the war and keep the Union together.

     

    Formative assessment #1

     

    The South was running out of supplies and losing battles.  Atlanta was captured and burned to the ground.  From November 15 until December 21, 1864, Union General William T. Sherman led some 60,000 soldiers on a 285-mile march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. The purpose of Sherman's March to the Sea was to frighten Georgia's civilian population into abandoning the Confederate cause.

     

    The last battle that General Robert E. Lee fought was at Appomattox Court House, in Virginia.  He lost the fight and surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant. The war was over and the North had won.

     

    The North was better prepared to fight a war. They had more factories, railroads, a better banking system, a government in place, and well trained army and navy officers. The South was dependent on the sale of cotton to finance their military efforts. When the north blockaded the south, they could not sell their cotton or import food, guns, ammunition etc. 

     

    Shortly after the war ended, President Lincoln went to a play at Ford’s Theatre.  He was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a southern man who was angry that his side lost the war.

     

     

    Reconstruction (rebuilding)  15 pts.

     

    President Lincoln wanted to make peace with the south after the north won the war.  He wanted to help the slaves make new lives for themselves.  The government created the Freedman’s Bureau to get land, medical attention, and education for ex-slaves (free blacks in the south).  The north sent the army to stay in the south until the southern states rejoined the Union.

    After the fighting, most Southerners had no money and no way to recover.  Many Northerners went South to take advantage of Southerners and make their fortune.  Southerners resented the help that freed slaves got from the Union government. Many remained angry that the south had lost the war, and that slaves were now free, and had rights.

     

    The government passes 3 new Amendments to the Constitution.  They freed the slaves, gave them citizenship and allowed them to vote. Only males could vote- not females, black or white.

     

    When Northerners got tired of paying for the Northern troops, they were pulled out of the South.  Without the protection of the Northern army, southern whites began activities to prevent the ex-slaves from enjoying their new rights. Jim Crow laws were laws passed in the south to control all aspects of the lives of ex-slaves. They began a system of segregation- keeping blacks and white apart.    Examples of a Jim Crow law: Ex-slaves were not permitted to go to school.  They could not own weapons.

     

    Ex-slaves needed to find work. Many went back to farming under a system known as ‘sharecropping’.  Black farmers were given a cabin, tools, a mule, and seed to plant by white landowners.  They agreed to work the land, which was still owned by the whites, and be paid with a portion on the crops they grew.  However, the white landowners ended up with most of the crop and ex-slave families remained very poor.  Their life was not very different from when they were slaves.

     

    Without the Northern army to protect the freed slaves, some Southerners began to harass them.  A group of ex-Confederate soldiers and southern landowners formed a terrorist group called the Ku Klux Klan.  Their purpose was to prevent freed slaves from enjoying their new rights.

     

    Black people continued to face prejudice and racism from whites in the north and south.  Prejudice is when people dislike other people before knowing them, based on their religion or the color of their skin. Discriminating against someone based on the color of their skin is called racism.

     

    Formative Assessment #2

    Quizlet available at Quizlet.com under The CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION-CAMPBELL

    UNIT TEST  March 10

    Study Guide    Events Leading up to the Civil War 

    Group 2   -  Tentative Test Date- late March

     

    Vocabulary: 11 pts. (some are embedded in other sections)

    Slaves- people that were bought and sold like property and forced to work for no wages; they were kidnapped from Africa and brought to work on cotton plantations in the south

    Economy- the system of how money is made and used within a particular country or region

    Factories- businesses that used machines to produce goods (mainly in the north)

    Cotton- main cash crop in the southern states

    Cash Crop- a crop grown to sell for profit,  not for use at home

    Abolitionists- people that fought to end slavery

    Discrimination- unfair treatment of one particular person or group of people. Usually the different treatment is because of the person's sex, religion, nationality, ethnicity (culture), race, or other personal traits. Discrimination based on race is called racism.

    Plantation- large farms that employed many people in the south

    Underground Railroad- a route from the south to the north for runaway slaves

    Conductor- black and white people that helped runaway slaves along the Underground Railroad

    Station- safe houses along the Underground railroad that sheltered runaway slaves

    Prejudice-  judging someone or having an idea about them before you actually know anything about them. 

    Union- Northern States that remained loyal to the United States (Blue uniforms)

    Confederacy- the Southern states that left (seceded from)  the United States (Grey uniforms)

    Secede-  when a state leaves the United States

    Civil War- when a country goes to war with itself; the northern states fought with the southern states over slavery

    Fugitive- a runaway

     

     

     

    Growing Differences Between the Northern and Southern States

     

    The North and South had very different economies

     

    The North had many natural resources such as timber, copper and stone.  They used their resources to make products in their factories.  They could make all the items they needed to fight a war.  They had better ships and better railroads to move goods and military equipment. The North relied on immigrants to work in their factories and paid them wages. However, work in the factories was very hard, paid very little wages,  and unsafe.

     

    Although the South had had few natural resources and fewer railroads.  The South relied only on the sale of cotton, their main CASH CROP.  It was the most important crop in the South.  The plantation (large farm) owners felt they needed slaves to pick the cotton.   They had a much smaller population than the north and fewer cities.

     

    Slave life vs. Life for Free African-Americans: 4 pts.

     

    A slave was a person kidnapped form Africa and forced to work on southern plantations without pay.  Slaves had no control over their own lives and were considered to be the property of their white owners.  They could be bought and sold, separated from their families, and were treated with great cruelty.

     

    Slavery went against the Core Democratic Values of our country including Equality, Diversity, Justice and Individual Rights.

     

    Some African- Americans were free and lived in the North.  Free African -Americans were not treated as badly as slaves, but did not have equal rights with white citizens.  They faced discrimination and prejudice in the Northern states.

     

    The government tried to keep the country from going to war over slavery :

    (Legislation)  5 pts.

     

    The federal government tried to keep a balance of free and slave states in the 1800s.  They passed laws to prevent a civil war over slavery including:

    1. The Missouri Compromise: to keep a balance of free and free states, Missouri was allowed to join the United States as a slave state and Maine joined as a free state. A line was drawn from east to west across the country- states north of the line would not allow slavery and states below the line could have slaves.
    2. In 1850 there was another Compromise Law- California joined as a free state; New Mexico and Utah decided for them selves about slavery there
    3. The Fugitive Slave Law was passed in 1850 and said that anyone helping slaves escape to freedom would be punished.
    4. The Dred Scott Case- Dred Scott was a slave from VA. He went to the Supreme Court to try and win his freedom He lost the case because the court said he was not a citizen but a piece of property that had no rights.

     

    Many people worked to end slavery:  11 pts.

    Many people in the north thought that slavery was wrong.  They were called Abolitionists and made speeches and wrote books and newspaper articles against it.  They were especially worried that slavery would be allowed in the new Western states.  People like John Brown wanted to end slavery and attacked an armory using violent tactics.

     

    Slaves fought to win their freedom in many ways.  They helped each other try to escape.  There were armed rebellions like the one led by Nat Turner.  This made Southern plantation owners grew afraid of the slaves and passed strict laws restricting the behavior of slaves.    The Slave Codes forbid slaves to get an education, own a weapon, or leave the plantation without permission.

     

    The Underground Railroad was a path to freedom for slaves in the south.  It helped them escape to freedom in the northern states. It was not a railroad or underground.  Safe houses were called stations and the people that helped slaves along the way were called conductors.  People that hated slavery helped the slaves find their way north and gave them food and money on their journey.  Harriet Tubman was a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad.  The trip north was very dangerous.

     

    Many Abolitionists made speeches and wrote articles against slavery.  Frederick Douglass was a former slave that spoke out against slavery.  Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote a book telling the story of a slave family called Uncle Tom’s Cabin.  People in the North read it, became angry,  and worked harder to end slavery.  People in the south banned the book and said it was all lies.

     

    The election of President Abraham Lincoln: 1 pt.

     

    President Lincoln was elected in 1860, a time when the North and South were bitterly angry at each other over the issue of slavery.  Lincoln’s anti-slavery beliefs made many southerners afraid.  By the following spring, 7 southern states had seceded, or left, the United States.  The country was on the verge of a civil war.

     

    Quizlet study cards available at quizlet .com

    Under

    Events Leading to the Civil War-CAMPBELL

     UNIT TEST FEB 6  The Growing Nation

    HOMEWORK Group 2: The Star Spangled Banner text and questions   Assigned 1-14  Due 1016

    STUDY GUIDE-  U.S. History     The Growing Nation                      

    Tentative Test Date- early Feb.

    Terms:  3 pts.

    A treaty is an agreement between nations to avoid war.  The Transcontinental Treaty established borders between Spain and the United States.

     

    A compromise is when 2 parties each give up something they want to come to an agreement.

     

    Impressment refers to the act in which men were captured and forced into naval service by the British. This practice led to the War of 1812.. 

     

    The Northwest Ordinance: 2 pts.

         After the American colonists won the War of Independence against Great Britain, many people wanted to move west.  The Northwest Ordinance was a law passed by Congress that set out rules for a section of the future United States called the Northwest Territory.   The Northwest Ordinance  ( a law ) , was passed in 1787.  This law said:

    • The Northwest Territory would belong to the whole United States, not to particular states.
    • It set rules for how the territory would be governed and for when parts of the territory could become states. When the population of a territory reached 60,000, the area could ask Congress to become a state. The Northwest Territory could be divided into three to five states in this way.
    • The Northwest Ordinance also included statements of the rights of the citizens of the territory. It forbade slavery in the territory. It guaranteed the right to trial by jury. It granted freedom of religion. It said that Indians must be treated fairly. It also encouraged public education for the children of the territory

     

     

    The Louisiana Purchase: 5 pts.

     

    With the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the United States acquired a large area of land from the French. It was the single largest purchase of land ever by the United States and doubled the size of the country.

    Why did the United States want more land? The United States had been growing rapidly. In search of new land to plant crops and raise livestock, people had been expanding to the west past the Appalachian Mountains and into the Northwest Territory. As these lands became crowded, people needed more land and the obvious place to expand was to the west.  They were looking for land and resources.

    How much did it cost? Thomas Jefferson wanted to buy the settlement of New Orleans from the French. It was a major seaport that was fed from the Mississippi River, making it important to many American businesses. He sent Robert Livingston, the U.S. Minister to France, to try and buy the land from the French Emperor Napoleon. At first Napoleon refused to sell. He had hopes of creating a massive empire that included the Americas. However, soon Napoleon began to have troubles in Europe and he needed money for war desperately. James Monroe traveled to France to work with Robert Livingston. In 1803, Napoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory to the United States for $15 million.

    How big was it? The Louisiana Purchase was huge. It totaled 828,000 square miles and all or part of what would later become 15 different states. It doubled the size of the United States and made it a major world nation.

     

    Lewis and Clark: 1 pt.

        Lewis and Clark were asked by President Thomas Jefferson to explore and map the wild west of North America. They traveled across the country to the Pacific Ocean and back again.  They were helped by a Native American woman named Sacagawea from the Shoshone tribe.  She acted as an interpreter, showed them many edible plants and helped keep the peace with other Native American tribes.  Without her help, the exploration might have failed.

     

    The War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States- 2 pts.

    • War Hawks were a group that pressed for war against Britain
    • US grew weary of British attacks on ships in Atlantic Ocean
    • US wanted to stop British support of Native Americans
    • US wanted to drive Britain out of Canada
    • known for dramatic battles at sea

    The British Captured Washington D.C.  in 1814

    • President Madison barely escaped along with important historical

    documents

    • President’s House and Capitol were burned along with other

    government buildings

    The War of 1812 ended in 1814

    • Treaty of Ghent, signed on December 24, 1814
    • John Adams- US representative signed treaty in Ghent, Belgium
    • British were distracted by war with France

    The Battle of New Orleans

    • was fought in January 8, 1815- after war was officially over, but news had not yet reached American troops
    • British wanted to capture New Orleans because it was an important port on the Mississippi River
    • US troops were led by Andrew Jackson, defeated British troops
    • Andrew Jackson became a war hero

    Francis Scott Key wrote out national anthem, “The Star-Spangled Banner’ about the British attack on Fort Williams.

     

    Formative Assessment 1

     

     The Monroe Doctrine: 1823 1 pt.

          President Monroe wanted to talk to Congress about issues that involved all countries of the North and South America. Some South  American countries fought wars for independence from European control.  However, some European countries were still interested in controlling colonies in both North and South America.
              President Monroe saw Europe’s ideas as a threat to the United States. England wanted the United States to join with it against the Spanish, French, and Russians. Some people thought that, since the United States was an independent country in America, it should support the new independent countries in South America. Monroe was afraid that this might lead to a war.

         The main points that he made in his speech were:

    1.    There should be no more European colonization in America.
    2. European countries should not interfere with the new, independent countries in Central and South America.
    3. The United States should not interfere with European colonies that were already established in America.

     

    President Andrew Jackson- 2 pts.

    Andrew Jackson is most famous for being considered the first "common man" to become president. He also made changes to the way the presidency was run. Prior to becoming president he was known as a war hero from the War of 1812.  His nickname was “Old Hickory”.

    Jackson wanted a small, but strong federal government. He fought against the national bank saying that it helped the rich and hurt the poor. He also insisted that states were required to follow federal laws

     

    The Trail of Tears- 1 pts

    The Trail of Tears was when the United States government forced Native Americans to move from their homelands in the Southern United States to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Peoples from the Cherokee, Muscogee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole tribes were marched at gunpoint across hundreds of miles to reservations. 

     

    After the Indian Removal Act was passed in 1830, the Cherokee people resisted moving to Oklahoma. Many Native Americans did not want to give up their land.  They petitioned to Congress begging them to let them stay on their land. 

    Despite gaining some support in Congress, the Cherokee were told they must leave by May of 1838 or they would be forced from their land. When May arrived, only a few thousand Cherokee had left. President Jackson sent General Winfield Scott to remove the Cherokee by force.  Thousands of Native American men, women and children died on the forced march.

     

    Manifest Destiny: 2 pts.

    Expansion westward seemed perfectly natural to many Americans in the mid-nineteenth century. Independence had been won in the Revolution and reaffirmed in the War of 1812. Now, with territory up to the Mississippi River claimed and settled and the Louisiana Purchase explored, many Americans headed west. Newspaper editor JOHN O'SULLIVAN coined the term "MANIFEST DESTINY" in 1845 to describe the idea that the United States not only could, but was destined to, stretch from coast to coast. This attitude helped fuel western settlement, Native American removal and war with Mexico.

     

    The Oregon Trail:  3 pts.

    The Oregon Trail (Missouri to Oregon) was laid by fur trappers and traders from about 1811 to 1840 and was only passable on foot or by horseback. By 1836, when the first migrant wagon train was organized in Independence, Missouri, a wagon trail had been cleared to Fort Hall, Idaho. Wagon trails were cleared further and further west, eventually reaching all the way to the Willamette Valley in Oregon. Some pioneers went to find farmland and some went on to California to look for gold. A pioneer was a person who is among the first to explore or settle a new country or area.

     

    The California Gold Rush: 2 pt.

    It began in 1848 when gold was discovered at Sutter’s mill in California. The gold-seekers, called "forty-niners" (because many went west in 1849), often faced substantial hardships on the trip. While most of the 49ers were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin AmericaEuropeAustralia, and Asia. At first, the gold nuggets could be picked up off the ground. Later, gold was recovered from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. More sophisticated methods were developed and later adopted elsewhere. Gold worth tens of billions of today's dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with little more than what they had started with.

           

    The Texas Revolution 2 pts.

    Americans began moving west in large numbers to settle Texas, which belonged to Mexico, in the 1820s.  By 1830, Americans outnumbered Mexicans (Tejanos) by 3 to 1, so Mexico stopped allowing Americans to settle in Texas.  This angered many Americans.

    Stephen F. Austin tried to negotiate with the Mexican government but was arrested.  Texans rebelled to form their own republic- separate from both Mexico and the United States. Fighting broke out and many Americans were killed at the Battle of the Alamo.  Later, General Sam Houston defeated the Mexican Army near the San Jacinto River. He captured the leader of the Mexican army, General Santa Anna.

    Santa Anna agreed to grant Texas its independence in exchange for

    his freedom, but later refused to acknowledge it.  Sam Houston asked President Jackson for statehood, but he refused, since a new slave state would upset the balance between free and slave states. Ten years later, President Polk promised to grant Texas statehood. Texas’s statehood set off the Mexican-American War because Mexico had never fully recognized Texas as independent

     

    The Mexican – American War 2 pts.

    In 1846, President Polk attempted to establish Texas border and purchase Mexican territories of California and New Mexico, but Mexico refused. The United Sates declared war on Mexico and General Zachary Taylor defeated Santa Anna’s army. The war ended in 1848 with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.  The Rio Grande River became the border with Mexico.  The United States gained land in what is now Arizona, New Mexico, California and Nevada.

     

    Formative Assessment 2

    Quizlet study guide available at Quizlet.com

    THE GROWING NATION-CAMPBELL

     

    December Unit- A New Nation  Tentative Test Date Jan 8

    Students will begin a U.S. History Unit on the struggles of the founding fathers to design a working constitution for the young country.  We will cover the Articles of Confederation, Constitutional Congress, political parties (Federalists and Anti-Federalists), the Constitution and Bill of Rights, and 3 branches of government Lesson will include leveled texts, comprehension questions, diagrams, projects, and discussion.  A study plan, Study Guide, and Quizlet will be sent home on the first day.  There will be formative assessments which can be a useful study tool for the unit test. Tentative Date for the unit test will be: late December.

     

    The Articles of Confederation, the Constitutional Convention, the Constitution, Bill of Rights, Political Parties, and 3 branches of Government

     

    The Articles of Confederation:

          After winning the American Revolution, the first set of federal laws- the Articles of Confederation -did not work and needed to be revised.  Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation:

    • No power to raise money through taxes
    • No way to enforce the laws passed by Congress
    • No national court system
    • Each state only had one vote in Congress despite the size of the state

    Strengths of the Articles:

     

    • They were the first agreement made between the 13 new states
    • Gave the government the power to deal with foreign governments, make war, treaties
    • Gave the government the power to deal with Native Americans
    • Asked states to get along with each other- compromise
    • Issued the Northwest Ordinance for the western lands
    • Created a national post office

    The Constitutional Convention

    Americans held a meeting called the Constitutional Convention and used democratic process (compromise and voting). Purpose:  to solve the young nations problem- the Articles of Confederation were not working- they were TOO WEAK.

     They decided to throw out the Articles and to write new laws for our country. However, it was not easy.  They argued over the amount of power the states should retain, the amount of power the federal government should have, and the issue of slavery.  They took ideas from other sources including a book called Common Sense by Thomas Paine. This book was about the natural rights of man. 

    The first plan was the Virginia Plan. It called for each state to send representatives based on the population of the state- large states had much greater representation in Congress. This made the big states happy.

    The second plan presented was the New Jersey Plan.  It called for each state to send 2 representatives so every state was represented equally.  This made the little states happy.

    After much argument, they settled on a compromise (each side got a little of what they wanted and no side got nothing).  Using the democratic process (voting), the states could settle their problems without fighting. It was called the Great Compromise. This plan set up two lawmaking groups, or "houses," as they are called. One house, called the House of Representatives, was to be based on the number of people who lived in that state. The other house, called the Senate, was to have the same number of members (two) from each state. Laws had to be passed by both houses.  Large states and small states got something they wanted.

     

    The Constitution and Bill of Rights:

     

       The new set of law that all citizens of the United States would have to follow were called the Constitution. Some people were still not satisfied with the new set of laws.  They demanded that more individual rights be written into the law of the land.  Therefore, they added 10 changes to the Constitution- they were called the Bill of Rights. Our Individual Rights come from this document. (A change to the Constitution is called an amendment.)

    Focus on these 4 amendments from the Bill of Rights

    The 3 Branches of Government:

     

       The Founding Fathers divided the government into 3 branches:

     

    • The Executive Branch- includes the President who is elected by the people and enforces the laws. The President is the Commander in Chief and the head of the army, navy, air force. A president can only run for 2 terms.
    • The Legislative Branch- includes the 2- part Congress (Senate and House of Representatives) who are elected by the people. The Congress writes the laws.
    • The Judicial Branch- includes the Supreme Court- the most powerful court in the land. They decide if the laws are fair and in line with the Constitution.  There are 9 judges appointed for life terms.  Their decisions are usually final.  There is no higher court.
    • Because no one branch of the government has the most power, we say our government has ‘checks-and-balances’.

     

    Political Parties: Federalists and Anti-Federalists

     

       A political party is a group of people that think the same way about government. At first there were 2 parties:

    • The Federalists- wanted a strong federal (central) government with a strong president. John Adams and George Washington were Federalists.
    • The Anti-Federalists- wanted strong states rights. They did not was a strong central government. Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry were Anti-Federalists.

     

     

     

    In November we will explore The Revolutionary War- tentative test date-  Nov.  22

    Group 2  STUDY GUIDE

     

         People came to North America to build a colony where they could have economic and religious freedom that they could not have in England.  Some of the first colonists were the Pilgrims that settled in New England. The colony still belonged to England and King George.  We celebrate Thanksgiving every year to remember how grateful the Pilgrims were to have survived in the new land.  5 pts.

     

         In the mid-1700s, France was at war with Great Britain in Europe.  The fighting spread to North America. Native Americas fought with both the French and the British soldiers.  American colonists fought won the side of the British King George.  After the French and Indian War ended, Great Britain got control of the 13 American colonies and France got Canada.  However, Great Britain was in great debt and taxed the colonists to pay for the war.  The American colonists did not like the taxes and they felt taxation without representation was unfair. They refused to buy British goods- a boycott was placed on tea and other common items sold from England.  This cost England a lot of money.  There were other reasons that colonists were angry at the king.  King George would not let them cross over the Appalachian Mountains into the Ohio Valley.  The king insisted that they get along with the Native Americans and not take any more of their land.    5 pts.

     

         Many people wanted freedom from Great Britain and were willing to fight a war to get it. They were called Patriots- like John Adams, Paul Revere, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and George Washington.  The Patriots wanted a representative government where the people voted for their leaders. (The power of the government belongs to the people).

     

         The Boston Massacre occurred when colonists, angry over British taxes, began attacking British troops with rocks.  The British fired into the crowd, killing 5 colonists. 

     

         Things got worse as the British imposed more taxes on the American colonists.  There was a big delivery of tea sitting on a British ship in Boston harbor.  It was supposed to be sold to colonists, but the colonist had imposed a boycott on British tea (they refused to buy it and made their own instead).  In an act of rebellion, colonists dressed up as Native Americans snuck aboard the ship and threw all the tea into the harbor water.  This event became known as the Boston Tea Party.

     

            Fighting broke out in Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts.  Trade was interrupted between the colonies and Great Britain.  American colonists organized militias to protect themselves from British soldiers.

     

       Both sides met in London to try and work out an agreement.  After negotiations failed, the patriots got together to decide what to do.  They did not want to have a king anymore. They wanted to govern themselves. At the meeting, Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence- a document explaining to King George the reasons that the American colonists wanted their freedom.  On July 4, 1776, the Americans declared their independence from Great Britain.   8 pts.

     

         The Patriots wanted war to end British rule over the colonies. Many people did not want war but wanted to protest peacefully and they were called Loyalists.  One third of the colonists were neutral- they liked ideas from both sides and did not fight.  

     

        There were many reasons to think that Great Britain would win the war. Their large military was: (strengths)

    • Well-organized
    • Well trained
    • Had arms, ammunition, uniforms etc.

    However, the British were:  (weaknesses)

    • Far from home and supplies
    • Fighting in a unknown land
    • Wore red coats that were easy to see

     

        No one thought the American militia would win because: (weaknesses)

    • They had no navy
    • They were an army of volunteers and many deserted
    • They were not well-equipped or trained

     

    However, the American colonists won because: (strengths)

    • they had allies to help them (France sent soldiers and money)
    • they fought on familiar land,
    • and they were fighting to keep their homeland free (highly motivated).

          George Washington was the leader of the American military.  He kept the army together through many unsuccessful battles and a very hard winter at Valley Forge. The volunteer soldiers were cold and hungry.  Many were volunteers and deserted.   Eventually, the Americans won at the battle of Yorktown with help from their allies the French army and the war for independence from Great Britain ended.  The American colonists beat the mighty British military.  George Washington became our first president, although many people wanted to make him a king.  We have a president today because of George Washington.  6 pts.

     

         We celebrate our independence from Great Britain every 4th of July with picnics, parades and fireworks.

     Vocabulary:  6 pts.

     

    Colony-A colony is a group of people from one country who build a settlement in another territory, or land. They claim the new land for the original country, and the original country keeps some control over the colony. The settlement itself is also called a colony. 

    Colonist- a person from a colony

    Revolution-a forceful overthrow of a government by the people

    Trade-the exchange of goods or services between parties.

    Slave- a person who is considered property and owned by another person; they have no freedom and work for no pay

    Allies- a relationship between countries who agree to work together and protect each other

    Militia- civilians trained as soldiers but not part of the regular army

    Monarchy -form of government that has a single person known as a monarch at its head. Monarchs use such titles as king or queen. Most monarchies are hereditary. 

    Declaration of Independence- a legal document written by Thomas Jefferson at the Continental Congress and adopted on July 4, 1776.  It states the basic beliefs of the American colonists about the rights of all people and the reasons the American colonies wanted to separate from King George and British rule

    Liberty- freedom from control by another government. The American colonies wanted liberty- to be free of British control

    Massacre-a killing of multiple victims

    Surplus- a quantity much larger than is needed

    Harbor-a sheltered area of water where ships can take on or unload cargo

    Popular Sovereignty- the people are the source of all political power

    Representative government- form of government where citizens vote to elect people to represent their interests and concerns. Those elected meet to debate and make laws on behalf of the whole community or society, instead of the people voting directly on laws and other debates.

    Debt-  owing money to another person or country.

    Boycott- to refuse to buy, use, or go to, in order to make a protest or bring about a change. 

     

    Triangular Trade  2 pts.

    Quizlet Study tool at https://quizlet.com/321632407/the-revolutionary-war-campbell2018-flash-cards/

    The Revolutionary War

    Study Guide Group 1

     

    We celebrate the beginning of our nation on the Fourth of July.  The Americans fought against Great Britain and King George. They did not want a king.  They wanted to vote for their leaders.

    On the 4th of July,  we have picnics and watch fireworks.  Our country is the United States of America.  We are a free country – a democracy. We vote for our leaders.